We have adapted Rasmussen’s Framework to describe the led outdoor activity “system” as follows:
- Government policy and budgeting. The government policy and budgeting level refers to the government activities, decisions, actions etc relating to the provision of led outdoor activities.
- Regulatory bodies and associations. The regulatory bodies and associations level refers to the activities, decisions, actions etc made by personnel working for led outdoor activity regulatory bodies or associations.
- Local area government, activity centre management planning and budgeting, schools and parents. The Local area government, activity centre management planning and budgeting, schools and parents level refers to the activities, decisions, actions etc made by personnel working in local government, at the senior managerial levels of the activity centre involved (e.g. executive board level), at the schools involved, and by parents of the participants involved in the incident. These factors are related to higher level management, planning and budgeting activities and typically occur before the incident itself (this can even be years preceding the incident);
- Technical and operational management. The technical and operational management level refers to the activities, decisions, actions etc made by personnel at the supervisory and managerial levels of the organisation providing the activity involved in the incident. These factors typically occur prior to the incident itself but can also include decisions and actions made during, or in response to, the incident;
- Physical processes and instructor/participant activities. The physical processes and instructor/participant activities level refers generally to the activities undertaken ‘at the sharp end’ prior to, and during, the incident. It therefore describes the flow of events leading up to and during the incident in question. This includes decisions and actions made by instructors, participants etc, but may also include decisions and actions made by other actors, such as supervisors, emergency responders, members of the public etc;
- Equipment and surroundings. The equipment and surroundings level refers to factors associated with the equipment used in support of the activity, the physical environment in which the activity was undertaken, and the ambient and meteorological conditions prior to or during the incident;
In the UPLOADS project, this framework underpins the taxonomy that is provided to code the causal factors involved in incidents.